Key Metrics for Value Investing: P/E + P/B + P/S + EV/EBITDA + More!

Value investing is a strategy that has been used by investors for decades to find undervalued companies and profit from their potential growth. While value investing involves a comprehensive analysis of various factors, there are certain key metrics that investors look at when evaluating stocks. In this article, we will discuss some of the key metrics that investors use in value investing.

 

 

Value Investing: Key Metrics

Different investors may use different key metrics in value investing depending on their investment strategies, objectives, and risk tolerance. Some investors may focus on fundamental analysis and use metrics related to a company’s financial health, while others may take a more quantitative approach and use metrics related to market trends and momentum.

For example, value investors who focus on fundamental analysis may use metrics such as P/E ratio, P/B ratio, dividend yield, and earnings growth rate to evaluate a company’s financial health and growth potential. On the other hand, investors who use a quantitative approach may use metrics such as price momentum, relative strength, and moving averages to identify stocks with upward price trends.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio): The price-to-earnings (P/E) - digital art

P/E Ratio

  1. Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio): The price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio is a popular metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its earnings. It is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the earnings per share (EPS) of the company. A low P/E ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

However, a low P/E ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. A high P/E ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the market has high expectations for the company’s future earnings.


source: One Minute Economics on YouTube

Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio): The price-to-book (P/B) ratio - digital art

P/B Ratio

  1. Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio): The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its book value. It is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the book value per share of the company. A low P/B ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

Hence, a low P/B ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. A high P/B ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the market has high expectations for the company’s future earnings.


source: The Organic Chemistry Tutor on YouTube

Dividend Yield: The dividend yield is a metric used to evaluate a company's dividend payments in relation to its stock price - digital art

Dividend Yield

  1. Dividend Yield: The dividend yield is a metric used to evaluate a company’s dividend payments in relation to its stock price. It is calculated by dividing the annual dividend payment by the current stock price. A high dividend yield suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

A high dividend yield could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. Investors should also consider the sustainability of the dividend payments and the company’s ability to maintain or increase them in the future.


source: The Finance Storyteller on YouTube

Free Cash Flow: Free cash flow is a metric used to evaluate a company's ability to generate cash - digital art

Free Cash Flow

  1. Free Cash Flow: Free cash flow is a metric used to evaluate a company’s ability to generate cash after accounting for capital expenditures. It is calculated by subtracting capital expenditures from operating cash flow. A positive free cash flow suggests that a company has the ability to invest in future growth and return value to shareholders through dividends or share buybacks.

However, negative free cash flow could mean that the company is not generating enough cash to cover its expenses or invest in future growth. Investors should also consider the company’s debt levels and its ability to manage debt.


source: The Finance Storyteller on YouTube

Return on Equity (ROE) is a metric used to evaluate a company's profitability in relation to the amount of equity invested by shareholders - digital art

Return On Equity

  1. Return on Equity (ROE): Return on Equity (ROE) is a metric used to evaluate a company’s profitability in relation to the amount of equity invested by shareholders. It is calculated by dividing net income by shareholder equity. A high ROE suggests that a company is generating a significant return on the equity invested by shareholders.

Consequently, a high ROE could also be the result of excessive leverage or financial risk, which could be a concern for investors. Therefore, investors should also consider the company’s debt levels and financial health when evaluating ROE.

(P/S Ratio): The price-to-sales (P/S) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's stock price in relation to its sales revenue - digital art

P/S Ratio

  1. Price-to-Sales Ratio (P/S Ratio): The price-to-sales (P/S) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its sales revenue. It is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the annual sales revenue per share of the company. A low P/S ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

Furthermore, a low P/S ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. A high P/S ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the market has high expectations for the company’s future sales revenue.


source: WallStreetMojo on YouTube

Debt-to-Equity Ratio (D/E Ratio): The debt-to-equity ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's financial leverage - digital art

D/E Ratio

  1. Debt-to-Equity Ratio (D/E Ratio): The debt-to-equity ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s financial leverage. It is calculated by dividing total liabilities by shareholder equity. A low debt-to-equity ratio suggests that a company is using less debt and is therefore less risky.

A low debt-to-equity ratio could also mean that the company is not taking advantage of opportunities for growth. A high debt-to-equity ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the company is using more debt to finance its operations, which could be a concern for investors.


source: Rule #1 on YouTube

Earnings per Share Growth (EPS Growth): Earnings per Share Growth (EPS Growth) is a metric used to evaluate a company's growth potential - digital art

EPS Growth

  1. Earnings per Share Growth (EPS Growth): Earnings per Share Growth (EPS Growth) is a metric used to evaluate a company’s growth potential. It is calculated by comparing the current EPS to the EPS of the previous period. A high EPS growth rate suggests that a company has potential for growth and could increase its earnings in the future.

However, investors should also consider the sustainability of the EPS growth rate and the company’s ability to maintain or increase it in the future.


source: Everything Money on YouTube

Price-to-Cash Flow Ratio (P/CF Ratio): The Price-to-Cash Flow (P/CF) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's stock price in relation to its cash flow - digital art

P/CF Ratio

  1. Price-to-Cash Flow Ratio (P/CF Ratio): The Price-to-Cash Flow (P/CF) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its cash flow. It is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the cash flow per share of the company. A low P/CF ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

Hence, a low P/CF ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. A high P/CF ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the market has high expectations for the company’s future cash flow.


source: Teach Me Finance on YouTube

Price-to-Operating Cash Flow Ratio (P/OCF Ratio): The Price-to-Operating Cash Flow (P/OCF) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's stock price in relation to its operating cash flow - digital art

P/OCF Ratio

  1. Price-to-Operating Cash Flow Ratio (P/OCF Ratio): The Price-to-Operating Cash Flow (P/OCF) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its operating cash flow. It is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the operating cash flow per share of the company. A low P/OCF ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

Moreover, a low P/OCF ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook. A high P/OCF ratio, on the other hand, suggests that the market has high expectations for the company’s future operating cash flow.


source: The Finance Storyteller on YouTube

Price-to-Earnings Growth (PEG): Ratio Price-to-Earnings Growth (PEG) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's stock price in relation to its earnings growth - digital art

PEG Ratio

  1. Price-to-Earnings Growth (PEG): Ratio Price-to-Earnings Growth (PEG) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s stock price in relation to its earnings growth. It is calculated by dividing the P/E ratio by the expected earnings growth rate. A low PEG ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

Consequently, a low PEG ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook for earnings growth. Investors should also consider the sustainability of the earnings growth rate and the company’s competitive advantage.


source: Corporate Finance Institute on YouTube

Enterprise Value-to-Revenue (EV/R) Ratio: Enterprise Value-to-Revenue (EV/R) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's valuation in relation to its revenue - digital art

EV/R Ratio

  1. Enterprise Value-to-Revenue (EV/R) Ratio: Enterprise Value-to-Revenue (EV/R) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s valuation in relation to its revenue. It is calculated by dividing the enterprise value by the annual revenue of the company. A low EV/R ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

However, a low EV/R ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook for revenue growth. Investors should also consider the company’s debt levels and financial health when evaluating EV/R.

Enterprise Value-to-EBITDA (EV/EBITDA): Ratio Enterprise Value-to-EBITDA (EV/EBITDA) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company's valuation in relation to its EBITDA - digital art

EV/EBITDA Ratio

  1. Enterprise Value-to-EBITDA (EV/EBITDA): Ratio Enterprise Value-to-EBITDA (EV/EBITDA) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s valuation in relation to its EBITDA. It is calculated by dividing the enterprise value by the EBITDA of the company. A low EV/EBITDA ratio suggests that a stock is undervalued and has potential for growth.

A low EV/EBITDA ratio could also mean that the company is facing financial difficulties or has a poor outlook for EBITDA growth. Investors should also consider the company’s debt levels and financial health when evaluating EV/EBITDA.


source: New Money on YouTube

What Value Metrics Does Warren Buffett Use?

Warren Buffett, widely regarded as one of the most successful value investors in history, has employed a range of key metrics to evaluate stocks over the years. These metrics provide insight into a company’s financial health, growth potential, and market value. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the key metrics that Warren Buffett has used and how they have helped him identify high-quality investments.

Warren Buffet Key Value Metrics

The first metric that Warren Buffett has often used is the Price-to-Earnings (P/E) ratio. This ratio compares a company’s stock price to its earnings per share and helps investors determine whether a stock is undervalued or overvalued. Buffett has stated that he prefers to buy stocks with a low P/E ratio because they are generally undervalued by the market.

Another important metric that Warren Buffett has used is the Price-to-Book (P/B) ratio. This ratio compares a company’s stock price to its book value per share and helps investors identify undervalued stocks that have a low market price relative to their book value.

Return on Equity (ROE) is another key metric that Buffett has emphasized. This metric measures a company’s profitability by calculating the net income it generates as a percentage of shareholder equity. Buffett has stated that he likes companies with high ROE because they tend to be more efficient at generating profits.

The Debt-to-Equity ratio is yet another metric that Buffett has used to evaluate companies. This ratio measures a company’s leverage by comparing its debt to its equity. Buffett has stated that he prefers companies with low debt-to-equity ratios because they tend to have a lower financial risk and can manage their debt more effectively.

Free Cash Flow (FCF) is a metric that measures the cash generated by a company’s operations after accounting for capital expenditures. Buffett has stated that he likes companies with high FCF because they tend to have more flexibility to invest in growth opportunities or return cash to shareholders through dividends or share buybacks.

Warren Buffet Searches For Economic Moat Opportunities - digital art

Warren Buffet Searches For Economic Moat Opportunities

Moreover, Buffett has emphasized the importance of identifying a company’s economic moat. The economic moat refers to a company’s competitive advantage that allows it to maintain its market position and generate profits over the long term. Buffett has stated that he looks for companies with a strong economic moat because they are more likely to be able to withstand competition and generate sustainable profits.

Warren Buffett’s investment philosophy focuses on identifying high-quality companies that are undervalued by the market and have a strong competitive position in their industry. His use of key metrics such as the P/E ratio, P/B ratio, ROE, Debt-to-Equity ratio, FCF, and economic moat has helped him make informed investment decisions and achieve long-term success. By conducting thorough research and analysis of a company’s financial health and growth potential using these metrics, investors can improve their chances of identifying undervalued investments and generating long-term returns.


source: Talks at Google on YouTube

Final Thoughts: Key Metrics For Value Investing

In addition to these key metrics, investors should also consider other factors such as the company’s financial strength, stability, and growth potential. They should also consider industry and market trends, the management team and leadership, and any potential risks associated with the company and its operations.

It is important to note that value investing involves a comprehensive analysis of various factors, and investors should not rely solely on quantitative metrics when evaluating stocks. Investors should also consider qualitative factors such as the company’s competitive advantage, brand recognition, and management team.

Key Metrics for Value Investing: P/E + P/B + P/S + EV/EBITDA + More! - digital art

In conclusion, value investing is a strategy that involves a comprehensive analysis of various factors, including key metrics such as the P/E ratio, P/B ratio, dividend yield, and free cash flow. However, investors should also consider qualitative factors when evaluating stocks, and should conduct thorough research and analysis before making any investment decisions. By understanding and using these key metrics, investors can identify undervalued stocks and potentially profit from their growth potential.

Important Information

Investment Disclaimer: The content provided here is for informational purposes only and does not constitute financial, investment, tax or professional advice. Investments carry risks and are not guaranteed; errors in data may occur. Past performance, including backtest results, does not guarantee future outcomes. Please note that indexes are benchmarks and not directly investable. All examples are purely hypothetical. Do your own due diligence. You should conduct your own research and consult a professional advisor before making investment decisions. 

“Picture Perfect Portfolios” does not endorse or guarantee the accuracy of the information in this post and is not responsible for any financial losses or damages incurred from relying on this information. Investing involves the risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors. When it comes to capital efficiency, using leverage (or leveraged products) in investing amplifies both potential gains and losses, making it possible to lose more than your initial investment. It involves higher risk and costs, including possible margin calls and interest expenses, which can adversely affect your financial condition. The views and opinions expressed in this post are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of anyone else. You can read my complete disclaimer here

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